Enemies of Civilization: Attitudes toward Foreigners in Ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China (SUNY series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture)

By Mu-Chou Poo

Looks at how foreigners have been appeared in 3 old civilizations, discovering that cultural, no longer biophysical, modifications have been key in distinguishing "us" from "them."

Enemies of Civilization is a piece of comparative heritage and cultural realization that discusses how “others” have been perceived in 3 historic civilizations: Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China. each one civilization used to be the dominant tradition in its a part of the area, and every built a state of mind that looked itself as culturally stronger to its acquaintances. Mu-chou Poo compares those societies’ attitudes towards different cultures and unearths modifications and similarities that exhibit the self-perceptions of every society.

Notably, this paintings exhibits that during distinction to trendy racism in accordance with biophysical positive aspects, such prejudice didn't exist in those historical societies. It was once tradition instead of biophysical nature that used to be an important criterion for distinguishing us from them. by way of analyzing how societies conceive their prejudices, this ebook breaks new floor within the research of historical historical past and opens new how you can examine human society, either historical and modern.

Mu-chou Poo is Professor and study Fellow within the Institute of historical past and Philology at Academia Sinica in Taiwan. he's the writer of numerous books, together with looking for own Welfare: A View of historic chinese language faith, additionally released by way of SUNY Press.

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Eleven Kampand Yoffee 1980:94. For theoretical concerns, see F. Barth ed. 1969. M. B. Rowton 1973: 247-58. 12 set off, Kemp, O’Connor, and Lloyd 1983: 1-4; N. Grimal 1992: 22-23; Ian Shaw ed. 2000: sixty five. thirteen Karl Butzer 1976: 4ff. 14 for instance, R. D. Givens, and M. A. Nettleship eds. 1976; D. Riches ed. 1986. 15 Chang Kwang-chih 1986: 214ff. ; idem, 1999. sixteen Su Bingqi 1997: 28-84. 17 Su Bingqi 1997: 28-84. 18 S. J. Shennan 1989: 1-32; Jonathan corridor 1997: 111-42. Ian Hodder 1991. 19 Chang Kwang-chih 1980: 248-59. See bankruptcy three less than.

This system signifies that prior to the components are clarified, the complete wouldn't develop into transparent. simply as to appreciate an exceptional culture one must have a transparent suggestion of the person components of that culture, a comparability among cultures lacks enterprise origin if comparisons among particular concerns and phenomena haven't been carried out. A newest examine, someplace among Trigger’s and Lloyd’s frameworks, is a comparative learn of old civilizations targeting the most important ideas of order, legitimacy, and wealth,48 at the start posed via a piece of writing coauthored by means of John Baines and Norman Yoffee.

E. 1994. Semitic phrases in Egyptian Texts of the hot country and 3rd Intermediate interval. Princeton: Princeton collage Press. Hodder,Ian. 1991. interpreting the previous. Cambridge: Cambridge college Press. Hodgson, Marshall G. S. 1993. Rethinking global background: Essays on Europe, Islam,and international background. Cambridge: Cambridge college Press. Holloman, R. E. , and S. A. Arutiunov, eds. 1978. views on Ethnicity. The Hague: Mouton. Hornung, Erik. 1982. The Conceptions of God in historic Egypt. Ithaca: Cornell collage Press.

Accordingly the measure of “foreignness” of a foreigner is simply felt for one that up holds a place relating to the guts of the most cultural values. One could say that it's principally a production of situated cultural cognizance. As such, the foreigner is a relative idea: all of it is dependent upon who's viewing whom from which place. This realizing isn't any doubt in detail with regards to theories on ethnicity. Ethnic Theories and old historical past Greek writings approximately overseas humans have been sometimes called historic “ethnography.

New Haven: Yale collage Press. Sivan,Daniel,and Zipora Cochavi-Rainey. 1992. West Semitic Vocabulary in Egyptian Script of the Fourteenth to the 10th Centuries BCE. Negev: Ben-Gurion collage of the Negev Press. Sjöberg, A. W. , and E. Bergman. 1969. the gathering of the Sumerian Temple Hymns. ny: Texts from Cuneiform assets three. Locust Valley, N. Y. : J. J. Augustin. Smith, William. S. 1965. Interconnections within the historical close to East; A learn of the Relationships among the humanities of Egypt, the Aegean, and Western Asia.

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