Category: Sociology

7 millions de travailleurs pauvres : La face cachée des temps modernes

By Jacques Cotta

Plus de 7 hundreds of thousands de salariés perçoivent un salaire inférieur à 722 euros par mois et se trouvent dans l'incapacité de se nourrir, de se loger ou de s'habiller décemment, de même que leur famille. Plus de 12 hundreds of thousands ont moins de 843 euros de revenu mensuel. Plus de three sans homestead fixe sur 10 ont un boulot à temps complet, partiel ou précaire, gagnent souvent entre 900 et 1300 euros, et cherchent pourtant soir après soir où dormir... Entre l. a. moitié et les deux stages des femmes qui travaillent ont un contrat au sigle étrange - CES, CIE, CEC... -, touchent moins de 750 euros par mois, ont un enfant, vivent seules ou avec un conjoint au chômage et forment ninety % des familles monoparentales...

Nous voilà dans le monde des travailleurs pauvres!

Alors que jamais le can pay n'a été aussi riche - le PIB est en development constante depuis les années 1990 -, los angeles précarité s'est développée sur un mode exponentiel. En dix ans, l'intérim a augmenté de a hundred thirty percent, le nombre de CDD de 60 percent, les CDI de seulement 2 percent. Plus d'un million de personnes bénéficient du RMI, plus de 500000 de l'allocation solidarité.

Cela n'arrive qu'aux autres? Erreur! Tout le monde peut être concerné du jour au lendemain après un drame body of workers, un événement familial, un licenciement... Au cours de cette enquête, dans l. a. lignée du Peuple d'en bas de Jack London ou de Dans los angeles dèche à Paris et à Londres de George Orwell, Jacques Colla a rencontré des personnes qui le savent bien: André, ancien prof surdiplômé, Éric, assureur autodidacte, Jean-François, boucher charcutier, Yves, coiffeur dans los angeles marine reconverti sur l. a. terre ferme, Étienne, informaticien recyclé dans le gardiennage, Roland, manutentionnaire, Jean, jardinier... Autant de travailleurs dont on n'aurait jamais soupçonné, au most excellent abord, qu'ils pouvaient être touchés par cette nouvelle pauvreté. Ils avaient une famille, une maison, pignon sur rue, et ils ont tout perdu.

Le sujet dérange. Hommes politiques et médias n'en parlent que rarement. Tout au plus comptabilise-t-on, en hiver, les morts de froid, en les présentant comme des «SDF», sans autre précision. Puis l'information est reléguée au moment plan.

Le thème sera sans doute au coeur des débats dans los angeles standpoint des élections de 2007. L'occasion, donc, de poser quelques questions à ceux qui nous gouvernent ou qui en ont l'ambition...

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Masculine Domination

Masculine domination is so anchored in our social practices and our subconscious that we rarely understand it; it's so a lot based on our expectancies that we discover it tricky to name into query. Pierre Bourdieu’s research of Kabyle society presents tools to aid us comprehend the main hid elements of the family among the sexes in our personal societies, and to damage the bonds of misleading familiarity that tie us to our personal tradition.

Bourdieu analyzes masculine domination as a main instance of symbolic violence—the form of mild, invisible, pervasive violence exercised during the daily practices of social existence. to appreciate this manner of domination we also needs to study the social mechanisms and institutions—family, tuition, church, and state—that rework background into nature and eternalize the arbitrary. simply during this method will we open up the chances for a type of political motion that may placed background in movement back by means of neutralizing the mechanisms that experience naturalized and dehistoricized the family members among the sexes.

This new ebook via Pierre Bourdieu—which has been a bestseller in France—will be crucial studying for a person desirous about questions of gender and sexuality and with the buildings that form our social, political, and private lives.

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Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City

By Elijah Anderson

Unsparing and demanding. . . . An informative, clearheaded and sobering book.―Jonathan Yardley, Washington Post (1999 Critic's Choice)

Inner-city black the USA is usually stereotyped as a spot of random violence, yet in reality, violence within the internal urban is regulated via an off-the-cuff yet famous code of the road. This unwritten set of rules―based principally on an individual's skill to command respect―is a robust and pervasive type of etiquette, governing the best way humans learn how to negotiate public areas. Elijah Anderson's incisive booklet delineates the code and examines it as a reaction to the inability of jobs that pay a residing salary, to the stigma of race, to rampant drug use, to alienation and absence of wish.

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Political Ponerology (A Science on the Nature of Evil Adjusted for Political Purposes)

By Andrew M. Lobaczewski

"Political Ponerology is attention-grabbing, crucial reading." --Philip Zimbardo, writer of The Lucifer influence "This is a rare book." --Ilan Pappe, writer of The Ethnic detoxification of Palestine the unique manuscript of this booklet went into the furnace mins prior to a mystery police raid in Communist Poland. the second one replica, painfully reassembled through scientists operating lower than most unlikely stipulations of violence and repression, used to be despatched through courier to the Vatican. Its receipt was once by no means stated - the manuscript and all necessary info misplaced. In 1984, the 3rd and ultimate reproduction was once written from reminiscence via the final survivor of the unique researchers: Andrew Lobaczewski. Zbigniew Brzezinski blocked its ebook. After part a century of suppression, this ebook is eventually on hand. Political Ponerology is surprising in its clinically spare descriptions of the real nature of evil. it's poignant in its extra literary passages revealing the substantial agony skilled by means of the researchers infected or destroyed via the illness they have been learning. Political Ponerology is a learn of the founders and supporters of oppressive political regimes. Lobaczewski s technique analyzes the typical elements that bring about the propagation of guy s inhumanity to guy. Morality and humanism can't lengthy stand up to the predations of this evil. wisdom of its nature and its insidious impact on either participants and teams - is the single antidote.

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Colonial America: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)

By Alan Taylor

Within the conventional narrative of yank colonial background, early ecu settlements, in addition to local peoples and African slaves, have been taken care of in passing as unlucky aberrations in a essentially upbeat tale of Englishmen turning into freer and extra filthy rich by means of colonizing an considerable continent of "free land."

Over the final new release, historians have broadened our knowing of colonial the US by way of adopting either a trans-Atlantic and a trans-continental point of view, studying the interaction of Europe, Africa, and the Americas during the circulation of products, humans, vegetation, animals, capital, and ideas. during this Very brief Introduction, Alan Taylor offers an attractive review of the easiest of this new scholarship. He indicates that American colonization derived from an international enlargement of ecu exploration and trade that all started within the 15th century. The English needed to proportion the level with the French, Spanish, Dutch, and Russians, every one of whom created replacement Americas. via evaluating the various colonies of rival empires, Taylor recovers what used to be actually designated in regards to the English company in North the US. He focuses specially on slavery as relevant to the economic climate, tradition, and political considered the colonists and restores the significance of local peoples to the colonial tale. to conform to the recent land, the colonists wanted the services, tips, alliance, and alternate of the Indians who ruled the inner. This historic technique emphasizes the power of the varied natives to evolve to the rookies and to compel concessions from them.

This Very brief Introduction describes an intermingling of cultures and of microbes, vegetation, and animals--from diversified continents that used to be unheard of in international history.

Oxford's Very brief Introductions sequence bargains concise and unique introductions to quite a lot of subjects--from Islam to Sociology, Politics to Classics, Literary idea to historical past, and Archaeology to the Bible. no longer easily a textbook of definitions, every one quantity during this sequence presents trenchant and provocative--yet regularly balanced and complete--discussions of the important concerns in a given self-discipline or box. each Very brief Introduction provides a readable evolution of the topic in query, demonstrating how the topic has constructed and the way it has encouraged society. ultimately, the sequence will surround each significant educational self-discipline, supplying all scholars an available and plentiful reference library. regardless of the region of research that one deems vital or beautiful, regardless of the subject that fascinates the final reader, the Very brief Introductions sequence has a convenient and reasonable advisor that would most probably end up indispensable.

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Survivors of Slavery: Modern-Day Slave Narratives

By Laura T. Murphy

Slavery isn't a criminal offense limited to the some distance reaches of heritage. it truly is an injustice that maintains to entrap twenty-seven million humans around the globe. Laura Murphy deals as regards to 40 survivor narratives from Cambodia, Ghana, Lebanon, Macedonia, Mexico, Russia, Thailand, Ukraine, and the USA, detailing the horrors of a procedure that forces humans to paintings with out pay and opposed to their will, below the specter of violence, with very little technique of break out. Representing numerous situations in various contexts, those survivors are the Frederick Douglasses, Sojourner Truths, and Olaudah Equianos of our time, attesting to the common lifestyles of a human rights tragedy and the pressing have to deal with it.

Through storytelling and firsthand testimony, this anthology shapes a twenty-first-century narrative that many think died with the tip of slavery within the Americas. prepared round such concerns because the want for paintings, the punishment of defiance, and the movement towards activism, the gathering isolates the explanations, mechanisms, and responses to slavery that let the phenomenon to undergo. improving scholarship in women's stories, sociology, criminology, legislation, social paintings, and literary experiences, the textual content establishes a standard trajectory of vulnerability, enslavement, captivity, break out, and restoration, developing a useful source for activists, students, legislators, and repair providers.

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To Flourish or Destruct: A Personalist Theory of Human Goods, Motivations, Failure, and Evil

By Christian Smith

In his 2010 ebook What Is a Person?, Christian Smith argued that sociology had for too lengthy missed this primary query. triumphing social theories, he wrote, don't appropriately “capture our deep subjective adventure as folks, the most important dimensions of the richness of our personal lived lives, what thinkers in earlier a while may have known as our ‘souls’ or ‘hearts.’” development on Smith’s earlier paintings, To Flourish or Destruct examines the motivations intrinsic to this subjective event: Why do humans do what they do? How do we clarify the task that offers upward thrust to all human social existence and social structures?
Smith argues that our activities stem from a motivation to achieve what he calls normal human items: ends which are, via nature, constitutionally strong for all humans. He is going directly to discover the methods we will and do fail to achieve those ends—a failure that may bring about various gradations of evil. Rooted in serious realism and trained through paintings in philosophy, psychology, and different fields, Smith’s formidable e-book situates the assumption of personhood on the heart of our makes an attempt to appreciate how we would form stable human lives and societies.

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Floating City: A Rogue Sociologist Lost and Found in New York's Underground Economy

Long island is a urban of highs and lows, the place filthy rich elites percentage the streets with determined immigrants and destitute locals. Bridging this monetary divide is New York’s underground economic system, the invisible community of illicit transactions among wealthy and bad that secretly weaves jointly the complete city.

Sudhir Venkatesh, acclaimed sociologist at Columbia collage and writer of Gang chief for a Day, returns to the streets to attach the dots of latest York’s divergent financial worlds and crack the code of the city’s underground financial system. in response to Venkatesh’s interviews with prostitutes and socialites, immigrants and lecturers, excessive finish drug bosses and street-level purchasers, Floating City exposes the underground because the city’s precise engine of social transformation and fiscal prosperity—revealing a totally exceptional imaginative and prescient of recent York.

A memoir of sociological research, Floating City attracts from Venkatesh’s decade of study in the prosperous groups of higher East aspect socialites and Midtown businessmen, the drug gangs of Harlem and the intercourse staff of Brooklyn, the artists of Tribeca and the escort companies of Hell’s Kitchen. Venkatesh arrived within the urban after his groundbreaking learn in Chicago, the place crime remained stubbornly neighborhood: gangs caught to their housing tasks and criminals stayed on their corners. yet in Floating City, Venkatesh discovers that New York’s underground economic system unites rather than divides population: an unlimited community of “off the books” transactions linking the low and high worlds of the town. Venkatesh exhibits how dealing in medicines and intercourse and undocumented exertions bridges the traditional divides among wealthy and negative, unmasking a urban knit jointly by way of the invisible threads of the underground economy.

Venkatesh heavily follows a dozen New Yorkers locked within the underground economic system. His maximum advisor is Shine, an African American drug boss established in Harlem who hopes to damage into the elusive, upscale cocaine marketplace. with out connections between prosperous whites, Shine undertakes an audacious crusade of self-reinvention, abandoning the certainties of race and sophistication with the entire force of the best marketers. As Shine explains to Venkatesh, “This is long island! We’re like hummingbirds, guy. We pass flower to flower. . . . the following, you want to float.”

Floating urban: A Rogue Sociologist misplaced and located in New York’s Underground Economy chronicles Venkatesh’s decade of discovery and loss within the moving terrain of latest York, the place study matters may possibly disappear by surprise and new allies emerge accidentally, the place shut buddies could exhibit themselves to be criminals of the bottom order. Propelled by way of Venkatesh’s a variety of interviews and firsthand learn, Floating City at its middle is a narrative of 1 guy suffering to appreciate a fancy international urban consistently within the throes of turning into.

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Ida: A Sword Among Lions: Ida B. Wells and the Campaign Against Lynching

Heralded as a landmark fulfillment upon e-book, Ida: A Sword between Lions is a sweeping narrative a few nation and a crusader embroiled within the fight opposed to lynching—a perform that imperiled not just the lives of black women and men, but in addition a country in accordance with legislation and riven by way of race.

At the heart of the nationwide drama is Ida B. Wells (1862-1931). Born to slaves in Mississippi, Wells all started her activist occupation by means of refusing to depart a firstclass girls' motor vehicle on a Memphis railway and rose to steer the nation's first crusade opposed to lynching. For Wells, the most important to the increase in violence was once embedded in attitudes not just approximately black males, but in addition approximately girls and sexuality. Her self sustaining viewpoint and percussive character won her encomiums as a hero—as good as aspersions on her personality and threats of demise. Exiled from the South through 1892, Wells as a result took her crusade around the kingdom and during the British Isles ahead of she married and settled in Chicago. There she persevered her activism as a journalist, suffragist, and self sufficient candidate within the rough-and-tumble international of the Windy City's politics.

With meticulous examine and shiny rendering of her topic, Giddings additionally presents compelling photos of twentieth-century innovative luminaries, blacks and whites who labored with Wells in the course of probably the most tumultuous classes in American heritage. during this groundbreaking paintings, Paula J. Giddings brings to lifestyles the irrepressible character of Ida B. Wells and offers the visionary reformer her due.

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Carried Away: The Invention of Modern Shopping

By Rachel Bowlby

Announcing historical past of purchasing used to be, till lately, a background of ladies, Rachel Bowlby trains her eye at the evolution of the fashionable consumer. She makes use of a compelling mix of historical past, literary research, and cultural feedback to discover the increase of shops and supermarkets of the us, France, and nice Britain.

Bowlby remembers the attention-grabbing early days of those associations. within the mid-nineteenth century, whilst department shops first constructed, their very good new constructions introduced middle-class ladies into city, the place they can take pleasure in what used to be then a brand new job: a day's buying. The shops provided luxurious, flattering girls into believing that they belonged in a gorgeous atmosphere. it really is right here, Bowlby argues, that the belief of the fashionable woman's ardour for style and purchasing took hold.

Developed within the 20th century, supermarkets took an contrary tack: they provided performance, standardization, and cheapness. although, Bowlby claims, regardless of their variations, the 2 associations belong jointly as emblematic in their respective eras' social advancements: the dep. shop with the expansion of towns, the grocery store with the proliferation of suburbs. With their excellent lighting and screens, either supermarkets and shops have been suggestion to supply in women an more advantageous or trance-like country of mind.

For readers who regard purchasing as a spectator or participatory activity, and if you happen to desire to comprehend our tradition and the psychology of girls, or those that easily take pleasure in a witty, literate romp during the aisles, over excited is the proper buy.

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